Managing for outcomes: using logic modeling
The starting point for introducing challenging programmes that cut across many work groups and departments is to find ways to articulate and guide planned project activities, especially those intended to produce dissemination and utilisation outcomes. Many managers do not have the tools to easily set out, document, and communicate complex programme goals, activity strategies, and intended outcomes. Logic models can assist these goals by encouraging project staff to plan for results by envisioning a 'big picture' view of a project's scope of work and potential significance to various target systems. Other names for logic models include 'outcomes models', 'causal chains', or 'intervention logic models' (ILMs).
Logic models are narrative or graphical depictions of processes in real life that communicate the underlying assumptions upon which an activity is expected to lead to a specific result. They generally illustrate a sequence of cause-and-effect relationships, i.e. a systems approach to communicate the path toward a desired result. The model describes logical linkages among programme resources, activities, outputs, and audiences, and highlights different orders of outcomes related to a specific problem or situation. Importantly, once a programme has been described in tenns of the logic model, critical measures of perfonnance can be identified. In this way logic models can be seen to support both planning and evaluation. A good place to start is with this introduction to logic models, and a more detailed introduction to outcomes. Below are annotated links to a number of intervention logic resources:
- The logic model for program planning and evaluation This short paper from Paul McCawley, University of Idaho Extension, provides another good introduction to completing a logic model. He highlights the importance of keeping it simple - as a model for discussion.
- Setting outcomes, and measuring and reporting performance of regional council pest and weed management programmes: Guidelines and resource materials This report by Chris Jones, Phil Cowan & Will Allen was developed through a project to provide local government with the capability to set measurable outcomes for biosecurity programmes and to identify the best indicators with which to measure progress towards those outcomes. It aims to help them better structure, measure and report on the performance of biosecurity programmes. The principles and protocols described are applicable to most other areas of local government and agency activity. The guidelines cover: i) Introduction & Background: an overview of performance measurement as a management tool; ii) Logic Models: the principles behind and structure of logic models, a commonly-used method of describing and evaluating the performance of a programme; iii) Developing Logic Models: how to develop a logic model for a programme, including the definition of outcomes; iv) Assessing Progress and Performance: how a set of performance indicators can be developed for a programme; and v) Evaluation & Reporting: how performance information can be linked to reporting requirements and used to improve ongoing management activities.
- Developing and using program logic in natural resource management This guide by Alice Roughley outlines a step-by-step process for developing program logic in the context of Natural Resource Management (NRM). The guide is aimed at those who are developing a program logic for the first time and may also be helpful to other users in a range of contexts. In this guide, the term "program" covers all levels of intervention, whether through a project, program, strategy or activity, as well as program design and evaluation. Through a series of exercises, templates and checklists, this guide outlines the key steps in developing a program logic. It points to key steps to develop a program logic being: scoping/defining the program boundaries; developing an outcomes hierarchy and expectations about change; articulating and documenting assumptions and theory of change; and formulating evaluation questions, program contribution and audiences.
- Handbook on planning, monitoring and evaluating for development results This 2009 version of the UNDP ‘Handbook on Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating for Development Results’ recognizes that planning, monitoring and evaluation require a focus on nationally owned development priorities and results. It recognizes that results planning is a prerequisite for effective programme design, monitoring and evaluation, and integrates planning, monitoring and evaluation in a single guide. Second, it reflects the requirements and guiding principles of a cycle of planning, monitoring and evaluation. Third, it includes a comprehensive chapter on evaluation design for quality assurance.
- Logic models This website from the University of Wisconsin has an example of a logic model and as well tools for creating a logic model in PDF, Word and Excel formats. These tools, which come with instructions, can be downloaded and used for your organization.
- Introducing program teams to logic models: Facilitating the learning process A good introduction to developing a logic model from Nancy Porteous and colleagues. This Research and Practice Note provides the key content, step-by-step facilitation tips, and case study exercises for a half-day logic model workshop for managers, staff, and volunteers. Included are definitions, explanations, and examples of the logic model and its elements, and an articulation of the benefits of the logic model for various planning and evaluation purposes for different audiences.
- Enhancing Program Performance with Logic Models This course from the University of Wisconsin extension service introduces a holistic approach to planning and evaluating education and outreach programs. Module 1 helps program practitioners use and apply logic models. Module 2 applies logic modeling to a national effort to evaluate community nutrition education.
- Participatory Impact Pathways Analysis: A practical method for project planning and evaluation This short paper by Boru Douthwaite and Sophie Alvarez outlines Participatory Impact Pathways Analysis (PIPA) as a practical planning, and monitoring and evaluation approach developed for use with complex projects in the water and food sectors. PIPA begins with a participatory workshop where stakeholders make explicit their assumptions about how their project will achieve an impact. Participants construct problem trees, carry out a visioning exercise and draw network maps to help them clarify their 'impact pathways'. These are then articulated in two logic models. The outcomes logic model describes the project's medium term objectives in the form of hypotheses: which actors need to change, what are those changes and which strategies are needed to realise these changes. The impact logic model describes how, by helping to achieve the expected outcomes, the project will impact on people's livelihoods. Participants derive outcome targets and milestones which are regularly revisited and revised as part of project monitoring and evaluation (M&E).
- Outcome Mapping: Building learning and reflection into development programs This manual by Sarah Earl, Fred Carden, and Terry Smutylo is intended as an introduction to the theory and concepts of Outcome Mapping. Section 1 presents the theory underpinning Outcome Mapping — its purpose and uses, as well as how it differs from other approaches to moni- toring and evaluation in the development field, such as logic models. Section 2 presents an overview of the workshop approach to Outcome Mapping — including the steps of the workshop, as well as how to select participants and facilitators. Sections 3, 4, and 5 outline each of the stages of an Outcome Mapping workshop, suggest a process that can be followed by the facilitator and provide examples of the finished 'products'.
Outcome Mapping focuses on one particular category of results - changes in the behaviour of people, groups, and organizations with whom a program works directly. These changes are called 'outcomes'. Through Outcome Mapping, development programs can claim contributions to the achievement of outcomes rather than claiming the achievement of development impacts. Although these outcomes, in turn, enhance the possibility of development impacts, the relationship is not necessarily one of direct cause and effect. Instead of attempting to measure the impact of the program's partners on development, Outcome Mapping concentrates on monitoring and evaluating its results in terms of the influence of the program on the roles these partners play in development.
Often people talk about logic models and theory of change processes interchangeably, Logic models - such as the ones above - connect programmatic activities to client or stakeholder outcomes. But a theory of change goes further, specifying how to create a range of conditions that help programmes deliver on the desired outcomes. These can include setting out the right kinds of partnerships, types of forums, particular kinds of technical assistance, and tools and processes that help people operate more collaboratively and be more results focused. You may also be interested in the related topic of indicator development. Another related page can be found in the knowledge management section with links on how best to develop conceptual models.