Abbot, J. & Guijt, I. (1998) Changing views on change: participatory approaches to monitoring the environment. Pp. 1-96 in SARL Discussion Paper No. 2, July 1998. London: IIED (ISBN 1560-2192).

Abdalla, C.W. & Kelsey, T.W. (1996) Breaking the impasse: Helping communities cope with change at the rural-urban interface. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 51: 462-466.

Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M. (1980) Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA:Prentice-Hall.

Allen, W.J. (1997) Towards improving the role of evaluation within natural resource management R&D programmes: The case for 'learning by doing'. Canadian Journal of Development Studies XVIII, Special Issue: 625-638. (Available from <> Accessed 4 October 2000).

Allen, W. (1999) NRM-changelinks: Participatory monitoring and evaluation. Available from <> (Accessed 10 December 1999).

Allen, W. (2000) NRM-changelinks: Improving Community Participation in Environment & Development. Available from <> (Accessed 4 October 2000).

Allen, W.J. & Bosch, O.J.H. (1996) Shared experiences: the basis for a cooperative approach to identifying and implementing more sustainable land management practices. Pp. 1-10 in Proceedings of Symposium "Resource management: Issues, visions, practice" Lincoln University, New Zealand, 5-8 July 1996 (Available from <> Accessed 4 October 2000).

Allen, W.J. & Bosch, O.J.H. (1998) The role of hypermedia and the Internet in facilitating an ongoing and collaborative learning environment. Unpublished Landcare Research Contract Report LC9798/110, Lincoln, New Zealand

Allen, W.J. & Kilvington. M.J. (1999) Why involving people is important: The forgotten part of environmental information system management. Paper presented at 2nd International Conference on Multiple Objective Decision Support Systems (MODSS '99) for Land, Water and Environmental Management, Brisbane, Australia, 1-6 August 1999.

Allen, W.J., Bosch, O.J.H., Gibson, R.G. & Jopp, A.J. (1995) Co-learning our way to

sustainability: Integrating local and scientific knowledge through an evolutionary research approach to support land management decision-making. Paper presented at Malama Aina 95, 1st International Conference on Multiple Objective Decision Support Systems (MODSS) for Land, Water and Environmental Management, Honolulu, Hawaii, 23-27 July 1995.

Allen, W., Brown, K., Gloag, T., Morris, J., Simpson, K., Thomas, J. & Young, R. (1998a). Building partnerships for conservation in the Waitaki/Mackenzie basins. Unpublished Landcare Research Contract Report LC9899/033, Lincoln, New Zealand.

Allen, W.J., Bosch, O.J.H., Gibson, R.G. & Jopp, A.J. (1998b) Co-learning our way to sustainability: An integrated and community-based research approach to support natural resource management decision-making. Pp. 51-59 in Multiple objective decision making for land, water and environmental management.( Eds: El-Swaify,S.A. & Yakowitz, D.S.) Boston, USA: Lewis Publishers.

Allen, W.J., Wardle K. & Bosch, O.J.H. (1998c) Providing decision support for tussock grasslands: the role of the Internet and adaptive management. Unpublished Landcare Research Contract Report LC9798/130, Lincoln, New Zealand.

Allen, W., Bosch, O., Kilvington, M., Oliver, J.& Gilbert, M. (2000a) Benefits of collaborative learning for environmental management: Applying the Integrated Systems for Knowledge Management approach to support animal pest control. Journal of Environmental Management (In press)

Allen, W.J., Bosch, O.J.H., Kilvington, M.J., Harley, D.G. & Brown I. Monitoring and adaptive management: resolving social and organisational issues to improve information sharing. (Submitted: Natural Resources Forum, 2000b)

Altrichter, H., Kemmis, S., McTaggart, R. & Zuber-Skeritt, O. (1991) Defining, confining or refining action research. Pp. 3-9 in Action research for change and development.(Ed.: Zuber-Skerritt, O.) Brisbane, Australia: Centre for the Advancement of Learning and Teaching, Griffith University.

Anderson, F. (1999) The challenge of leveraging the Internet for a sustainable water management agenda: enabling global cooperation and local initiatives. Water International 24(2): 126-139.

Anyanwu, C.N. (1988) The technique of participatory research in community development. Community Development Journal 23: 11-15.

Argent, R.M., Grayson, R.B. & Ewing, S. A. (1999) Integrated models for environmental management: Issues of process and design. Environment International 25(6/7): 693-699.

Argus Clearinghouse (2000) Sustainable development (general). Available from < > (Accessed 4 October 2000).

Argyris, C. (1985) Strategy, change and defensive routines. Boston, USA:Pitman.

Argyris, C., Putnam, R. & Smith, D.M. (1985) Action science. San Francisco, USA:Jossey-Bass.

Ashton, C. (1998) Strategic considerations in facilitative evaluation approaches. The Action Evaluation Research Institute. Available from <> (Accessed 4 October 2000).

Baker, W. (n.d.) Building social capital as an organisational competence. University of Michigan Business School. Available from <> (Accessed 4 October 2000).

Bawden, R.J. (1987) Learning systems and technological change. Proceedings of the

Centenary International Conference on "Technology, Education and Society: Future Direction" RMIT, Melbourne.

Bawden, R.J. (1991) Towards action researching systems. Pp. 21-51 in Action research for change and development. (Ed.: Zuber-Skerritt, O.) Brisbane, Australia: Centre for the Advancement of Learning and Teaching, Griffith University.

Bawden, R.J., Macadam, R.D., Packham, R.J. & Valentine, I. (1984) Systems thinking and practices in the education of agriculturalists. Agricultural Systems 13: 205-225.

Bawden, R.J., Ison, R.J., Macadam, R.D., Packham, R.J. & Valentine, I. (1985) A research paradigm for systems agriculture. Pp. 31-42 in Agricultural systems research for developing countries, Proceedings of an international workshop (Ed.: Remenyi, J.V.) ACIAR, Canberra.

Beemans, P. (1996) Culture, spirituality and economic development: Foreword in Culture, spirituality, and economic development: Opening a dialogue.(Ryan, W.F.) Ottawa, Canada: International Development Research Centre. (Available from <> Accessed 4 October 2000).

Behnke, R.H. & Scoones, I. (1991) Rethinking range ecology: implications for rangeland management in Africa. Overview of paper presentations and discussions at the technical meeting on savanna development and pasture production. Woburn (UK), 19-21 November 1990. London: Commonwealth Secretariat, Overseas Development Institute and International Institute for Environment and Development.

Blokker, K.J. (1986) A view of information technology as an aid to decision-making by farmers. Research and Development in Agriculture 3: 79-81.

Bloome, P.D. (1991) The changing social contract for agricultural research and extension. Address to the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, Brisbane. AIAS Qld Branch Newsletter No. 341, October 1991.

Bosch, O.J.H. (1989a) Rangeland inventory and monitoring: the African experience. Pp. 221-231 in Proceedings of the international conference and workshop on global natural resource monitoring and assessments: Preparing for the 21st Century, Volume 1.

Bosch, O.J.H. (1989b) Degradation of the semi-arid grasslands of southern Africa. Journal of Arid Environments 16: 143-147.

Bosch, O.J.H. (1994) Semi arid Lands Research Programme: Integrated and community-based research towards more sustainable land uses in the South Island high country. Unpublished research outline, July 1994. Landcare Research, Alexandra, New Zealand.

Bosch, O.J.H. (1997) Improved land management systems for tussock grasslands. Unpublished research protocol for Contract C09803, Foundation for Research, Science and Technology and Landcare Research, New Zealand.

Bosch, O.J.H. (1998) Tussock programme issues. Private e-mail message to staff in Tussock Grasslands Research Programme. 30 September1998, held by Landcare Research, Alexandra.

Bosch, O.J.H. & Allen, W.J. (1998) Assisting the identification and uptake of effective Tb control strategies: the development of a learning environment. Landcare Research Contract Report LC9798/105, Lincoln, New Zealand.

Bosch, O.J.H. & Gauch, H.R. (1991) The use of degradation gradients for the assessment and ecological interpretation of range condition. Journal of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa 8: 138-146.

Bosch, O.J.H., Gauch, H.R., Booysen, J., Stols S.H.E., Gouws, G.A, Nel M.W. & Van Zyl, E. (1992) ISPD - An integrated system for plant dynamics ( Computer Software Package and Users Guide). Potchefstroom, South Africa: Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education.

Bosch, O.J.H., Williams, J.M., Allen, W.J. & Ensor, A. (1995a) Integrating community-based monitoring into the adaptive management process: the New Zealand experience. Pp. 105-106 in Proceedings Fifth International Rangelands Congress, Salt Lake City, Utah, 23-28 July 1995.

Bosch, O.J.H., Allen, W.J., Gibson, R.S., Gibson, R. & Wardle, K. (1995b) Cataloguing existing knowledge and monitoring data as a basis for the development of a management decision support system for the New Zealand high country. Pp. 62-63 in Proceedings Fifth International Rangeland Congress, Salt Lake City, Utah, 23-28 July 1995.

Bosch, O.J.H., Allen, W.J., Williams, J.M. & A. Ensor, (1996a) An integrated system for maximising community knowledge: Integrating community-based monitoring into the adaptive management process in the New Zealand high country. The Rangeland Journal 18: 23-32. (Available from <> Accessed 4 October 2000)

Bosch, O.J.H., Allen, W.J., O'Connor, K.F., Ensor, A.H., Jopp, A.J., Cameron, H. & Allan, B.E.

(1996b) Developing a better understanding of Hieracium invasion in the New Zealand high country: a participatory approach. Proceedings of the New Zealand Grassland Association 58: 161-165.

Bosch, O.J.H., Allen, W.J. & Gibson, R.S. (1996c) Monitoring as an integral part of management and policy making. Pp. 12-21 in Proceedings of Symposium "Resource management: Issues, visions, practice" Lincoln University, New Zealand, 5-8 July 1996. (Available from <> Accessed 4 October 2000).

Bosch, O., Allen, W., McGleish, W. & Knights, G. (1999) Integrating research and practice through information management and collaborative learning. Paper presented at Proceedings 2nd International Conference on Multiple Objective Decision Support Systems (MODSS) for Land, Water and Environmental Management, Brisbane, Australia, 1-6 August 1999.

Bouwen, R. & Fry, R. (1991) Organisational innovation and learning. International Studies of Management and Organization 21(4): 37-51.

Brittan, J.N.G. (1980) Design for a changing environment. The Computer Journal 23(1): 36-42.

Brown, J.S.,& Duguid, P. (1991) Organisational learning and communities-of-practice: Toward a unified view of working, learning and innovation. Organizational Science 2(1): 40-57.

Brubaker, S. (ed.) (1984) Rethinking the Federal Lands. Washington DC, USA: Resources for the Future.

Bunning, C. (1995) Professional development using action research . Action Learning, Action Research and Process Management Internet Conference: Bradford, England:MCB University Press. Obtained from <> (Accessed 12 February 1998)

Burgess, G. & Burgess, H. (1997) Transformative mediation. Available from <>(Accessed 13 September 2000).

Burnside, D.G. & Chamala, S. (1994) Ground-based monitoring: a process of learning by doing. The Rangeland Journal 16(2): 221-237.

Bush, R.A.B. & Folger, J.P. (1994) The promise of mediation: Responding to conflict through empowerment and recognition. San Francisco, USA: Jossey-Bass.

Campbell, A.C. (1995) Landcare: Participative Australian approaches to inquiry and learning for sustainability. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 50: 125-131.

Capacity 21 Programme (1996) Annual Report United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Available from <> (Accessed 20 January 2000).

Carr, W. & Kemmis, S. (1986) Becoming critical: Education, knowledge and action research. London: Falmer Press.

Carrascal, M.J., Pau, L.F. & Reiner, L. (1995) Knowledge and information transfer in agriculture using hypermedia: a system review Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 12: 83-119.

Carson, R. (1962) Silent spring. London: Hamish Hamilton.

Chambers, R. & Guijt, I. (1995) PRA - five years later. Where are we now? In FTP Newsletter Issue 26/27. Forest Trees and People Programme & Network. Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. (Available from <> Accessed 4 October 2000).

Checkland, P.B. (1981a) Systems thinking, systems practice. Chichester, UK: Wiley.

Checkland, P.B. (1981b) Towards a systems-based methodology for real-world problem solving. Pp. 288-314 in Systems behaviour 3rd edition (Ed.: Open Systems Group)London: Harper and Row.

Checkland, P. (1985a) From optimizing to learning: A development of systems thinking for the 1990s. Journal of the Operational Research Society 36:757-767.

Checkland, P. (1985b) Achieving 'desirable and feasible' change: An application of soft systems methodology. Journal of the Operational Research Society 36: 821-831.

Checkland, P. & Scholes, J. (1990) Soft systems methodology in action. Chichester, UK:Wiley.

Christensen, N.L., Bartuska, A.M., Brown, J.H., Carpenter, S., D'Antonio, C., Francis, R., Franklin, J.F., MacMahon, J.A., Noss, R.F., Parsons, D.J., Peterson, C.H., Turner, M.G. & Woodmansee, R.G. (1996) The report of the Ecological Society of America on the scientific basis for ecosystem management. Washington DC: The Ecological Society of America. (Obtained from <> 27 October 1998).

Churchman, C.W. (1971) The design of inquiring systems. New York: Basic Books.

Coleman, J. (1988) Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology 94, Supplement: S95-120.

Coleman, J. (1994) Foundations of Social Theory. Belknap: Cambridge, Massachussetts.

Cosmao, V. (1984) Un monde en developpment! Guide de reflexion. Paris: Editions Ouvrieres.

Coutts, J.A. (1994) Process, paper policy and practice: A case study of a formal extension policy in Queensland 1987-1994. (Published thesis) The Netherlands: Wageningen University (ISBN 90-5485-325-5).

Cronbach, L.J., Ambron, S.R., Dornbusch, S.M., Hess, R.D., Hornik, R.C., Philips, D.C., Walker, D.F. & Weiner, S.S. (1981) Toward reform of program evaluation. San Francisco, USA: Jossey Bass.

Dahlberg, K.A. (1979) Beyond the green revolution. New York: Plenum Press.

Dahlberg, K.A. (1991) Sustainable agriculture - fad or harbinger? BioScience 41: 337-340.

Damme, S. (1998) The "outcomes" challenge: An action research approach to evaluation in community program development. The Action Evaluation Project, The Aria Group. (Obtained from <> Accessed 27 October 1999).

Danckwerts, J.E., O'Reagain, P.J. & O'Connor, T.G. (1992) Range management in a changing environment: a South African perspective. The Rangeland Journal 15(1): 133-144.

De Conti, L. (1998) Planning and creating a government web site: learning from the experience of US states. Information Systems for Public Sector Management Working Paper no. 2. Manchester, UK: Institute for Development Policy and Management, University of Manchester.

De Walt, B.R. (1994) Using indigenous knowledge to improve agriculture and natural resource management. Human Organization 53: 123-131.

Dearnley, P.A. & Mayhew, P.J. (1983) In favour of system prototypes and their integration into the systems development cycle. The Computer Journal 26(1): 36-41.

Deshler, D. & Ewert, M. (1995) Participatory action research: traditions and major assumptions. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Participatory Action Research Network. Available from <> (Accessed 4 October 2000).

Dick, B. (1993) You want to do an action research thesis? Available from <>(Accessed 4 October 2000).

Dick, B. (1996) Managing change. Available from <> (Accessed 4 October 2000).

Dick, B. (1997) The Snyder evaluation process. Available from < > (Accessed 4 October 2000).

Dick, B. (2000) A beginner's guide to action research. Available from <> (Accessed 4 October 2000).

Donaldson, C. & Kilvington, M. (1996) Working with communities. Unpublished handbook. Landcare Research, Lincoln, New Zealand.

Dovers, S.R. & Mobbs, C.D. (1997). An alluring prospect? Ecology, and the requirements of adaptive management. Chapter 4 in Frontiers in ecology: Building the links. Proceedings, Conference of the Ecological Society of Australia 1-3 October 1997, Charles Sturt University. Oxford, UK:Elsevier Science. (Available from <> Accessed 4 October 2000).

Downes, S. (1998) The future of online learning. University of Northern Colorado, College of Education. Available from <> (Accessed 4 October 2000).

Druckman, D., Broome, B.J. & Korper, S.H. (1988) Value differences and conflict resolution. Journal of Conflict Resolution 32: 489-510.

ECDPM (2000) Investing in knowledge: Sharing information resources on the Web (InfoBrief 3). Maastricht, Netherlands: ECDPM. (Available from <> Accessed 9 October 2000).

El Swaify & international contributors (1999) Sustaining the global farm - Strategic issues, principles and approaches. Honolulu: ISCO & University of Hawaii.

Elden, M. & Chisholm, R.F. (1993) Emerging varieties of action research: Introduction to the special issue. Human Relations 46(2):121-442.

Ensor, A. & Aubrey, B. (1994) Project FARMER. Unpublished project description. Christchurch: Rural Futures Trust.

Folger, J.P. & Bush, R.A.B. (1996) Transformative mediation and third-party intervention: Ten hallmarks of a transformative approach to practice. Mediation Quarterly 13(4): 263-278.

Friedel, M.H. (1991). Range condition assessment and the concept of thresholds: a viewpoint. Journal of Range Management 44: 422-426.

Funtowicz, S.O. & Ravetz, J.R. (1994) Uncertainty, complexity and post-normal science. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 13(12): 1881-1885.

Gibson, R.S. & Bosch, O.J.H. (1996) Indicator species for the interpretation of vegetation condition in the St Bathans area, Central Otago, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 20(2): 163-172.

Gibson, R.S. & Bosch, O.J.H. (1999) Resource and Environmental Data Interpretation System (REDIS) <> (Accessed 4 October 2000)

Gibson, R.S., Allen, W.J., & Bosch, O.J.H. (1995) Condition assessment concepts and their role in facilitating range management. Annals of Arid Zone 34(3): 179-189.

GlobalGateway (2000) <> (Accessed 9 October 2000).

Goebel, A. (1998) Process, perception and power: notes from 'participatory' research in a Zimbabwean resettlement area. Development and Change 29(2):277-305.

Grayson, R. B., Doolan, J. M. & Blake, T. (1994) Application of AEAM (adaptive environmental assessment and management) to water quality in the Latrobe River catchment. Journal of Environmental Management 41: 245-258.

Grudens-Schuck, N. (1998) When farmers design curriculum: participatory education for sustainable agriculture in Ontario, Canada. Unpublished thesis dissertation, Cornell University.

Guba, E. G. & Lincoln, Y. S. (1989). Fourth generation evaluation. Newbury Park, CA, USA: Sage.

Guijt, I. & Gaventa, J. (1998) Participatory monitoring & evaluation: Learning from change. Available at:<>(Accessed 9 October 2000).

Gummesson, E. (1991) Qualitative methods in management research. Newbury Park,CA,USA: Sage.

Gunderson, L.H., Holling, C.S. & Light, S.S. Eds. (1995) Barriers and bridges to the renewal of ecosystems and institutions. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hadley, M. (1993) Grasslands for sustainable ecosystems. Pp. 12-18 in Grasslands for our world (Ed.: Baker, M.J.) Wellington, SIR Publishing.

Hess, K. (1992) Visions upon the land: man and nature on the western range. Washington DC, USA: Island Press.

HMP (1996) Programme update. Hieracium Management Programme Newsletter. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. April pp. 1-4.

Holling, C.S. (Ed.) (1978) Adaptive environmental assessment and management. New York: John Wiley.

Holmes, J.H. (1994) Changing values, goals, needs and expectations of rangelands users. The Rangeland Journal 16(2): 147-154.

Huber, G.P. (1991) Organizational learning: The contributing processes and the literatures. Organization Science 2(1): 88-115.

Hunter, D., Bailey, A, & Taylor, B. (1992) The Zen of groups: A handbook for people meeting with a purpose. Auckland , New Zealand: Tandem Press.

Hurt, C.R., Hardy, M.B. & Tainton, N.M. (1993) Identification of key grass species under grazing in the Highland Sourveld of Natal. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 10: 96-102.

Information Builders (1993) Level5 object. New York: Information Builders.

Ison, R.L. (1990) Teaching threatens sustainable agriculture. London: SARLs Gatekeeper Series SA 21,IIED.

Ison, R.L. (1993a) Changing community attitudes. The Rangeland Journal 15(1): 154-166.

Ison, R.L. (1993b) Soft systems: A non-computer view of decision support. Pp. 83-121 in Decision support systems for the management of grazing lands: emerging issues (Eds: Stuth, J.W. & Lyons, B.G.) Man and the Biosphere Series Vol. 11. Paris: UNESCO.

Ison, R.L. & Ampt, P.R. (1992) Rapid rural appraisal: A participatory problem formulation method relevant to Australian agriculture. Agricultural Systems 38: 363-386.

IUCN (1998) A world-wide information system on collaborative management of natural resources. Obtained from <> (Accessed 1 June 1999).

IUCN (2000) The Participatory Management Advisory Service: Capacity building for community-based, collaborative ecosystem and natural resource management. A project proposal. Available from <> (Accessed 9 October 2000).

Jiggins, J. (1993) From technology transfer to resource management. Pp. 184-189 in Grasslands for our world (Ed. Baker, M.J.) Wellington: SIR Publishing.

Jiggins, J. & Röling (1999) Adaptive management: potential and limitations for ecological governance. International Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology (In press).

Jonassen, D.H. (1992) What are cognitive tools? Pp. 1-6 in Cognitive tools for learning (Eds: Kommers, P.A.M., Jonassen, D.H., & Mayes, J.T.) New York: Springer-Verlag.

Kelly, G.A. (1955) The psychology of personal constructs. Volumes I and II. New York: W.W.Norton.

Kelman, S. (1983) Economic incentives and environmental policy: Politics, ideology and philosophy. Pp. 291-331 in Incentives for environmental protection ( Schelling, T.) Cambridge, USA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.

Kemmis (1991) Improving education through action research. Pp. 57-75 in Action research for change and development. (Ed. Zuber-Skerritt, O.) Brisbane, Australia: Centre for the Advancement of Learning and Teaching, Griffith University.

Kemmis, S. & McTaggart, R. (1988) The action research planner (3rd ed.) Geelong, Australia: Deakin University.

Kilvington, M. (1998) The Whaingaroa Catchment management project: A multi-stakeholder approach to sustainable catchment management. Ministry for the Environment Sustainable Management Fund project no. 2973. Available from <> (Accessed 9 October 2000).

Kilvington, M., Allen, W. & Kravchenko, C. (1999) Improving farmer motivation within Tb vector control. Unpublished Landcare Research Contract Report LC9899/110, Lincoln, New Zealand.

King. C.M. (1990) The handbook of New Zealand mammals., Auckland, New Zealand: Oxford University Press.

Kolb, D.A., Rubin, I.M. & McIntyre, J.M. (1979) Organisational psychology: An experiential approach (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA: Prentice Hall.

Korper, S.H., Druckman, D. & Broome, H.J. (1986) Value differences and conflict resolution. Journal of Social Psychology 126: 415-417.

Korten, D.C. (1980) Community organization and rural development: a learning process approach. Public Administration Review 40 : 480-510.

Land, R. & Hirschheim, R. (1983) Participative systems design: rationale, tools and techniques. Journal of Applied Systems Analysis 10: 91-107.

Ledford, G.E. & Mohrman, S.A. (1993) Self-design for high involvement: A large-scale organizational change. Human Relations 46(1):143-173.

Lee, K.N. (1993) Compass and gyroscope: integrating science and politics for the environment. Washington DC, USA: Island Press.

Lefroy, E.C., Salerian, J. & Hobbs, R.J. (1993) Integrating economic and ecological considerations: a theoretical framework. Pp. 209-244 in Reintegrating fragmented landscapes. Towards sustainable production and nature conservation (Eds: Hobbs R.J.& Saunders D.A.) New York: Springer-Verlag.

Liepins, R. & Campbell, H. (1998) Section 6.1 Expanding understandings of the social dimensions of organic agriculture. Available from <> (Accessed 30 April 2000) In: Liepins, R. & Campbell, H. (1998) Social dimensions affecting the development of organic agriculture. MAF Policy Technical Paper 98/7. Available from <> (Accessed 30 April 2000).

Lincoln, Y.S. (1992) Fourth generation evaluation: The paradigm revolution and health promotion. Canadian Journal of Public Health, Supplement 1: S6-S10.

Livingstone, P.G. (1996) Overview of the ferret problem. In: Ferrets as vectors of tuberculosis and threats to conservation: The Royal Society of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series 36: 2-6.

Loevinsohn, M. Guijt, I. & Berdegué, J. (1999) Call for papers for an international workshop and publication: Deepening the basis of rural resource management. ISNAR. Available from <> (Accessed 10 October 2000).

MacNab, J. (1983) Wildlife management as scientific experimentation. Wildlife Society Bulletin 11: 397-401.

Malhotra, Y. (1997) Knowledge management in inquiring organizations. Available from <> (Accessed 10 October 2000)

Manninen, C. (1999) The Great lakes Information Network: Lessons learnt from an integrated approach to Web design. Water International 24(2): 151-156.

Martin, G., Garden, P., Meister. A., Penno, W., Sheath. G., Stephenson. G., Urquart R., Mulcock. C. & Lough. R. (1994) South Island high country review. Final report of the working party on sustainable land management.Wellington: South Island High Country Review Working Party.

Masters, J. (1995) The history of action research. In Action Research Electronic Reader (Ed.: Hughes, I.) The University of Sydney. Internet journal available from <> (Accessed 10 October 2000).

Maturana, H. & Varela, F. (1972) Autopoeisis and cognition - the realisation of the living. Boston, USA: Reidel Publishing.

McAllister, K. (1999) Understanding participation: Monitoring and evaluating process, outputs and outcomes. Ottowa, Canada: International Development Research Centre(IDRC). (Available from <> Accessed 10 October 2000).

McLain, R.J. & Lee, R.G. (1996) Adaptive management: promises and pitfalls. Environmental Management 20(4): 437-448.

Mermet, L. (1991) Participation, strategies and ethics: Roles of people in wetland management. Landscape and Urban Planning 20: 231-237.

Mezirow, J. (1991) Transformative dimensions of adult learning. , San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

MfE (1999) Summary of the Environment 2010 Strategy. Ministry for the Environment. Available from <>(Accessed 10 October 2000).

Michael, D.N. (1995) Barriers and bridges to learning in a turbulent human ecology. Pp. 461-485 in Barriers and bridges to the renewal of ecosystems and institutions. (Eds:. Gunderson, L.H., Holling, C.S. & Light, S.S.) New York: Columbia University Press.

Miles, R.K. (1988) Combining 'soft' and 'hard' systems practice: grafting or embedding? Journal of Applied Systems Analysis 15: 55-60.

Minister of Science, Research and Technology (1999) Blueprint for change. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Research, Science and Technology.

Morgan, P. (1999) An update on the performance monitoring of capacity development programs: What are we learning? Paper presented at the meeting of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Informal Network on Institutional and Capacity Development, Ottawa, Canada, May 3-5. (Obtained from <> Accessed 12 September 2000).

Narayan, D. (1993) Participatory evaluation: Tools for managing change in water and sanitation. World Bank Technical Paper Number 207.

Norbury, G. & McGlinchy, A. (1996) The impact of rabbit control on predator sightings in the semi-arid high country of the South Island, New Zealand. Wildlife Research 23: 93-97.

O'Connor, K.F. (1986) The influence of science on the use of tussock grasslands. Review: Journal of the Tussock Grasslands and Mountain Lands Institute 43: 15-78.

Oja, S.N. & Smulyan, L. (1989) Collaborative action research: a developmental approach. London: The Falmer Press.

Oliver, J., Allen, W., Kilvington, M. & Gilbert, M. (2000) The role of the Animal Health Board's locally initiated programmes in changing farmer attitudes. Pp. 343-349 in "Achieving change through improved knowledge systems." (Eds: Stantiall, J.D. & McDiarmid, C.M.). Proceedings, 2000 Conference, Palmerston North, New Zealand. 16-17 August 2000. Palmerston North: Massey University.

O'Riordan, T. (1988) The politics of sustainability. Pp. 29-50 in Sustainable environmental management: principles and practice (Ed. Turner, R.K.) Boulder, Colorado,USA: Westview Press.

Orlando, Y. (1993) The role of conflict resolution in integrated catchment management: A case study in the Lockyer Creek catchment. Vol. 2. pp. 367-370 in Proceedings of the Australia-Pacific Extension Conference, Gold Coast, Australia. 12-14 October.

Page, N. & Czuba, C.E. (1999) Empowerment: What is it? Journal of Extension. Internet journal available from <> (Accessed 10 October 2000).

Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment. (1995) A review of the government system for managing the South Island Tussock grasslands: with particular reference to Tussock burning. Published report of the Office of the Parliamentary Commissioner of the Environment, Wellington, New Zealand.

Pea, R. & Brown, J.S. Eds (1990) Learning in doing: social, cognitive and computational perspectives. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Petak, W.J. (1980) Environmental planning and management: the need for an integrative perspective. Environmental Management 4(4): 287-295.

Pretty, J. (1998) Participatory learning for integrated farming. In: Proceedings of the Internet Conference on Integrated Biosystems.(Eds: Eng Long Foo & Tarcisio Della Senta).Obtained from <> (Accessed 20 January 2000).

Pretty, J.N. & Chambers, R. (1993) Towards a learning paradigm: New professionalism and institutions for agriculture. Brighton, UK: IDS.

Pretty, J. & Frank, B.R. (2000) Participation and social capital formation in natural resource management: Achievements and lessons. Pp.178-187 in Proceedings, "International Landcare 2000", Melbourne, Australia, 2-5 March 2000.

Provenza, F.D. (1991). Range science and range management are complementary but distinct endeavours. The Journal of Range Management 44: 181-183.

Ravetz, J.R. (1997) Integrated Environmental Assessment Forum: developing guidelines for "good practice". ULYSSES Working Paper WP-97-1. Darmstadt, Germany: Darmstadt University of Technology.

Report of the Secretary General (1997) Global change and sustainable development: critical trends. United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development. Available from: <> (Accessed 1 February 2000).

Resource Management Act (1991) Wellington: Government Printers

Reynolds, J. & Busby, J. (1996) Guide to information management in the context of the convention on biological diversity. Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP.

Rhoades, R.E. (1989) Evolution of agricultural research and development since 1950: Toward an integrated framework. IIED Sustainable Agriculture Programme, Gatekeeper Series No. SA12.

Röling, N. (1988) Extension science: Information systems in agricultural development Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Röling, N. (1993) Agricultural knowledge and environmental regulation in the Netherlands, Sociologia Ruralis 33(2): 261-280.

Rondinelli D.A. (1983) Projects as instruments of development administration: A qualified defence and suggestions for improvement. Public Administration and Development 3(3): 307-327.

Rosenhead, J. Ed.(1989) Rational analysis for a problematic world.,Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

Rothman, J. (1998) Action evaluation: Integrating evaluation into the intervention process. The Action Evaluation Research Institute. Available from <> (Accessed 10 October 2000).

Rothman, J. & Friedman, V. (in press) Identity, conflict and learning in organizations. In Handbook of organizational learning.(Eds: Dierkes, M., Child, J. & Nonaka, I.) Oxford University Press. Available from <> (Accessed 10 October 2000).

Ruckelshaus, W. D. (1989) Toward a sustainable world. Scientific American 251(3): 114-120C.

Russell, D.B., Ison, R.L., Gamble, D.R. & Williams, R.K. (1989) A critical review of extension theory and practice. Richmond, VA. Australia : AWC/UWS.

Sarokin, D. & Schulkin, J. (1991) Environmentalism and right-to-know: expanding the practice of democracy. Ecological Economics 4:175-189.

Schuller, T. & Field J. (n.d.) Social capital, human capital and the learning society. International Journal of University Adult Education. Internet journal available from <> (Accessed 10 October 2000).

Schwedersky, T. & Karkoschka, O. (1994). Process Monitoring (ProM): Work document for project staff, Eschborn, Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH.

Scoones, I. & Thompson, J. (1994) Knowledge, power and agriculture - Towards a theoretical understanding. Pp. 16-32 in Beyond farmer first: Rural people's knowledge, agricultural research and extension practice. (Eds: Scoones, I. & Thompson, J.) London, Intermediate Technology.

Scott, D. (1984) Hawkweeds in run country. Review: Journal of the Tussock Grasslands & Mountain Lands Institute 42: 33-48.

Sechrest, L. & Figueredo, A.J. (1993) Program evaluation. Annual Review of Psychology 44: 645-674.

Senge, P. (1990a) The leader's new work: Building learning organisations. Sloan Management Review, Fall: 7-23.

Senge, P. (1990b) The fifth discipline: the art and practice of the learning organisation. New York: Doubleday.

Senge, P.M., Kleiner, A., Roberts, C., Poss, R.B. & Smith, B. (1994) The fifth discipline fieldbook: strategies and tools for building a learning organisation. London: Nicholas Brealey.

Shadish, W.R.Jr., Cook, T.D. & Leviton, L.C. (1991) Foundations of program evaluation: Theories of practice. Newbury Park, CA, USA: Sage.

Site Meter (2000) NRM-changelinks website statistics. Obtained from <> (Accessed 30 July 2000).

Sriskandarajah, N. & Digman, D. (1992) The quest for sustainable agriculture: the current position in Australia. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 39: 85-100.

Sriskandarajah, N., Bawden, R.J. & Packham, R.G. (1991). Systems agriculture: A paradigm for sustainability. Association of Farming Systems Research/Extension Newsletter 2: 1-5.

Stafford Smith, D.M. & Foran, B.D. (1990) RANGEPACK: The philosophy underlying the development of a microcomputer-based decision support system for pastoral land management. Journal of Biogeography 17: 541-546.

Stafford Smith, M., Morton, S. & Ash, A. (1997) On the future of pastoralism in Australia's rangelands. In "Frontiers in Ecology: Building the Links", Conference of the Ecological Society of Australia, 1-3 October 1997, Charles Sturt University. Available from <> (Accessed 10 October 2000).

Stuth, J.W., Scifres, C.J., Hamilton, W.T. & Connor, J.R. (1991) Management systems analysis as guidance for effective interdisciplinary grazingland research Agricultural Systems 36: 43-63.

Susman, G. & Evered, R. (1978) An assessment of the scientific merit of action research. Administrative Science Quarterly 23: 582-603.

Tharp, R.G. & Gallimore, R. (1979) The ecology of program research and evaluation: a model of evaluation succession. Pp. 39-60 in Evaluation studies review annual (Eds: Sechrest, L., West, S.G., Phillips, M.A., Edner, R.& Yeaton, W.) Beverly Hills, CA, USA: Sage.

Thierauf, R.J. (1988) User-oriented decision support systems: Accent on problem finding. NJ, USA: Prentice Hall.

UNCED (1992) Information for decision-making. Chapter 40 in Agenda 21 -- Global Programme of Action on Sustainable Development. Available from <> (Accesssed 10 October 2000).

UNDP (1996) Capacity development for governance for sustainable human development. Available from <> (Accessed 10 October 2000).

Van Beek, P.G.H. & Coutts, J.A. (1992) Extension in a knowledge systems framework. Discussion notes, Number 2, February. Circles Newsletter. QDPI Systems Study Group. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries.

Wadsworth, Y. (1998) What is participatory action research? Action Research International. Paper 2. Available from <> (4 October 2000)

Walters, C. (1997) Challenges in adaptive management of riparian and coastal ecosystems. Conservation Ecology 1(2):1 Available from (Accessed 10 October 2000).

Walters, C. (1986) Adaptive management of renewable resources. New York: Macmillan.

Walters, C.J. & Hilborn, R. (1978) Ecological optimization and adaptive management.

Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9: 157-188.

Walters, C.J. & Holling, C.S. (1990) Large-scale management experiments and learning by doing. Ecology 71: 2060-2068.

Western, D. & Wright, R.M. Eds (1994) Natural connections: Perspectives in community-based conservation. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press.

Westoby, M., Walker, B., & Noy-Meir, I. (1989) Opportunistic management for rangelands not at equilibrium. Journal of Range Management 42(4): 266-274.

Whittaker, A.D. (1993) Decision support systems and expert systems for range science. Pp. 69-81 in Decision support systems for the management of grazing lands: emerging issues (Eds: Stuth, J.W. & Lyons, B.G.) Man and the Biosphere Series Vo1. 11. Paris: UNESCO.

Whyte, W.F. (1989) Advancing scientific knowledge through participatory action research. Sociological Forum 4(3): 367-385.

Williams, J.M. (1993) The factors and forces shaping rabbit control policies and practices in New Zealand: What lessons for the future? Pp. 42-50 in Proceedings of the Australian Rabbit Control Conference (Ed. Cooke, B.D.). Adelaide: Anti-rabbit Research Foundation of Australia.

Wilson, P. (1996) Empowerment: Community economic development from the inside out. Urban Studies 33(4-5): 617-630.

World Bank (1996) Reflections from the participation sourcebook. Environment Department Dissemination Note #40, World Bank. Available from <> (Accessed 10 October 2000).

World Commission of Environment and Development (1987) Our common future. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Wortley, S. (1996) Business as usual or action research in practice. In Action Research Electronic Reader.(Ed.: Hughes, I.) University of Sydney. Obtained from <> (Accessed 2 October 1998).

Wynberg, R. (1993) Exploring the Earth Summit. Findings of the Rio United Nations Conference on Environment and Development: Implications for South Africa. Johannesburg: Penrose Press.

Yaffee, S.L. (1997) Why environmental policy nightmares recur. Conservation Biology 11(2): 328-337.

Young, M.D., Gunningham, N., Elix, J., Lambert, J., Howard, B., Grabosky, P. & McCrone, E. (1996) Reimbursing the future: An evaluation of motivational, voluntary, price-based, property-right, and regulatory incentives for the conservation of biodiversity A report prepared by CSIRO Division of Wildlife and Ecology, the Australian Centre for Environmental Law, and Community Solutions.

Zuber-Skerritt, O. Ed. (1991) Action research for change and development. Centre for the Advancement of Learning and Teaching, Griffith University.

Zuber-Skerritt, O. (1992) Action research in higher education: examples and reflections. London: Kogan Page.


Back to Learning for Sustainability research index
E-mail Will Allen with any feedback or comments on this page